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BG8 LewisY, also known as LewisY blood antigen or simply BG8, is a blood group antigen that has been identified in many studies as a potential marker for differentiation between pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PACA) and epithelioid mesothelioma (EM). It has been reported that sensitivity of non-mesothelial antigens for adenocarcinoma is organ-dependent. When attempting to differentiate epithelioid mesothelioma from adenocarcinoma, BG8 LewisY performed at a sensitivity of 98% in the breast cancer group, and 100% in the lung cancer group.
KBA.62, also known as Melanoma Associated Antigen, is used to detect an antigen present in melanocytic tumors, such as melanomas, due to its proven sensitivity and specificity. The antibody can also be used to distinguish between junctional nevus and intradermal nevus cells, and fetal melanocytes versus normal adult melanocytes. Studies have shown KBA.62 to be highly useful in differentiating between metastatic amelanotic melanoma and a number of poorly differentiated carcinomas, large cell lymphomas, sarcomas, and spindle cell carcinomas.
Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (NGFR), also known as p75, P-75NTR or CD271, is a neurotrophin receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. NGFR is expressed mainly in Schwann cells and neurons, as well as a number of other non-neuronal cell types, and functions during central and peripheral nervous system development to regulate neuronal growth, migration, differentiation, and cell death. Nerve Growth Factor Receptor is also expressed in melanocytes, melanomas, neuroblastomas, pheochromocytomas, neurofibromas, neurotized nevi (type C melanocytes), and other neural crest cell or tumor derivatives. It has been suggested that NGFR may act as a tumor suppressor indicated in prostate and urothelial cancer, and Anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (NGFR) is often used in adjunct with S100, to aid in the diagnosis of desmoplastic and neurotrophic malignant melanomas. Anti-NGFR is also useful as an aid in the diagnosis of breast malignancy, as the antibody labels the myoepithelial cells of breast ducts and intralobular fibroblasts of breast ducts.
Podoplanin is a transmembrane mucoprotein specifically expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, while remaining absent from the blood vasculature. The protein is co-localized with VEGFR3/FLT4 in normal skin and kidney. Anti-Podoplanin is useful in the identification of lymphangiomas, Kaposi’s sarcomas, epithelioid mesotheliomas, hemangioblastomas, seminomas, and some angiosarcomas which likely have lymphatic differentiation.
SRY (Sex Determining Region Y)-Box 10 (SOX-10), also known as transcription factor SOX-10, is a nuclear transcription factor that acts in regulation of embryonic development and in the specification and differentiation of cells of melanocytic lineage. SOX-10 is diffusely expressed in neurofibromas and schwannomas, and mutations in the SOX-10 gene are linked to Waardenburg-Shah and Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease. Anti-SOX-10 has been shown to be sensitive for conventional, spindled, and desmoplastic melanoma, and has been used to detect metastatic melanoma and nodal capsular nevus in sentinel lymph nodes.
Vimentin is a component of intermediate filament in mesenchymal cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and melanocytes. Anti-Vimentin is useful for assessing whether tissue samples have been processed and preserved properly. A panel of Anti-Vimentin and Anti-Keratin is useful for differentiating melanomas from large cell lymphomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. This diagnostic grade Vimentin IVD antibody stains melanomas and schwannomas, as well as Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas.