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E-cadherin is an intercellular adhesion molecule present in epithelial cells. Anti-E-cadherin stains glandular epithelium, as well as lung, gastrointestinal and ovarian adenocarcinomas. A panel of antibodies against E-cadherin and p120 is also used to differentiate ductal (membranous staining) and lobular breast cancer (cytoplasmic staining). Anti-E-cadherin also stains some thyroid cancers.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) allows for progression of ovarian folliculogenesis, and enables Sertoli cell proliferation in the testis. Anti-FSH reacts with FSH-producing cells, therefore FSH staining is useful for classifying pituitary cancers and understanding pituitary disease.
GATA3 is a transcription factor important in cell proliferation, development, and differentiation. GATA3 is mostly observed in breast and urothelial carcinomas, and rarely present in other cancers such as endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Among the breast carcinomas, GATA3 has a lower expression in luminal B subtype breast carcinoma. Studies have found GATA3 expression to be associated with ER (estrogen receptor), PR (progesterone receptor), and Her2 in breast cancer cases. Urothelial carcinomas stain positively for GATA3 in invasive or high grade tumors, therefore Anti-GATA3 is useful for carcinoma diagnosis when breast and bladder are plausible.
The Her2/Neu (c-erbB-2) proto-oncogene is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is clinically indicated in a number of carcinomas. Overexpression of the c-erbB-2 protein has been associated with ductal breast cancer, as well as pulmonary and gastric adenocarcinomas. A correlation between Her2 and p53 has also been documented, as overexpression of both proteins has been associated with early invasion and metastasis in bladder cancer.