Shiga toxin (stx2f) producing Escherichia coli


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Product features

  • • Exceptional value for money
  • • Rapid detection of all clinically relevant subtypes
  • • Positive copy number standard curve for quantification
  • • Highly specific detection profile
  • • High priming efficiency
  • • Broad dynamic detection range (>6 logs)
  • • Sensitive to < 100 copies of target
  • • Accurate controls to confirm findings
SKU: Path-E.coli-stx2f Category: Tag:

Escherichia coli are one of many species of bacteria living in the lower intestines of mammals, known as gut flora. When located in the large intestine, it assists with waste processing, vitamin K production, and food absorption. Discovered in 1885 by Theodor Escherich, a German pediatrician and bacteriologist, E. coli are abundant: the number of individual E. coli bacteria in the faeces that a human defecates in one day averages between 100 billion and 10 trillion. However, the bacteria are not confined to the environment, and specimens have also been located, for example, on the edge of hot springs. The bacteria are Gram-negative, rod-shaped, flagellated and non-spore forming. Most strains are non-pathogenic but some cause food poisoning in humans with transmission largely being through the faecal-oral route. E.coli have a circular, DNA genome of approximately 4.6 Mb but also carry plasmids.
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are a form of enterohaemorrhagic E.coli that cause illness ranging from mild intestinal disease to severe kidney disease. The shiga toxin can cause haemorrhagic colitis, the source of the bloody diarrhoea associated with E. coli O157:H7 infections, as well as being responsible for haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). When the shiga toxin is released, it can translocate to organs other than the digestive tract such as the kidneys and central nervous system. The ability of the shiga toxins to pass through cell barriers is possibly due to the increased permeability of the intestinal epithelial cells resulting from effects of the body’s own immune system. The body increases permeability of cell barriers so that important cells of the immune system (neutrophils/PMN’s) can reach the E. coli infection. Shiga toxin may use this opportunity to break through the walls of the digestive tract, enter the blood stream, and bind white blood cells for transport to locations such as the kidney or brain. Transmission is predominantly through consumption of contaminated foods.
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli are found in humans, cattle, and goats. There are a number of E. coli serogroups that produce shiga toxin such as O157:H7, O26, O111, and O103. The Shiga toxins of STEC can be divided into Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), each with several sub-variants. Variant stx2f is one of the latest described in literature, found in E. coli strains from pigeons, it has been rarely associated with symptomatic human infections. Recently however, studies have found that human stx2f STEC infections are more common than anticipated in the Netherlands, with an estimated 20% of all STEC infections constituting the stx2f gene. Although Stx2f STEC infections appear to be relatively mild compared to other STEC infections, new data points to stx2f STEC emerging.

Shiga toxin (stx2f) producing Escherichia coli Manual