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PAX-8 is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors, which are key regulators in early development. This protein plays a role in development of thyroid follicular cells and the expression of thyroid-specific genes, with mutations in the PAX-8 gene linked to thyroid follicular carcinomas, atypical thyroid adenomas, and thyroid dysgenesis. The PAX-8 protein is expressed in simple ovarian inclusion cysts and non-ciliated mucosal cells of the fallopian tubes, but is absent from normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. PAX-8 is also not expressed in normal lung or lung carcinomas. Reports have associated PAX-8 expression with renal carcinoma, nephroblastoma, and seminoma, and have indicated PAX-8 as a useful marker for renal epithelial tumors, ovarian cancer, and for differential diagnoses in lung and neck tumors. Anti-PAX-8 can be useful in determining the primary site of invasive micropapillary carcinomas of ovary from bladder, lung, and breast, when used in adjunct with a panel of organ-specific markers such as uroplakin, mammaglobin, and TTF-1.
Thyroglobulin is a precursor to the thyroid hormones T4 and T3 and is present in the thyroid follicular cells. Nearly all thyroid follicular carcinomas stain for thyroglobulin and sometimes produce a focal staining pattern. Conversely, poorly differentiated carcinomas and non-thyroid adenocarcinomas do not stain for thyroglobulin, therefore this Thyroglobulin IVD antibody is a useful diagnostic tool for recognizing papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. A panel of Anti-Thyroglobulin and Anti-Calcitonin is useful for identifying medullary thyroid carcinomas, whereas a panel of Anti-Thyroglobulin and Anti-TTF1 is useful for distinguishing between primary thyroid and lung neoplasms.