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Actin is part of the cytoskeletal system of all cell types. Smooth Muscle Actin is found in myofibroblasts and myoepithelium, but not in cardiac and skeletal muscles. Labelling of smooth muscle actin in concert with muscle specific actin staining can allow for differentiation between rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma, as Muscle specific actin is found in rhabdomyoblasts, while smooth muscle actin is found in leiomyosarcomas.
Podoplanin is a transmembrane mucoprotein specifically expressed in the endothelium of lymphatic capillaries, while remaining absent from the blood vasculature. The protein is co-localized with VEGFR3/FLT4 in normal skin and kidney. Anti-Podoplanin is useful in the identification of lymphangiomas, Kaposi’s sarcomas, epithelioid mesotheliomas, hemangioblastomas, seminomas, and some angiosarcomas which likely have lymphatic differentiation.
Vimentin is a component of intermediate filament in mesenchymal cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and melanocytes. Anti-Vimentin is useful for assessing whether tissue samples have been processed and preserved properly. A panel of Anti-Vimentin and Anti-Keratin is useful for differentiating melanomas from large cell lymphomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. This diagnostic grade Vimentin IVD antibody stains melanomas and schwannomas, as well as Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas.
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a receptor on T helper cells that functions as an immune checkpoint and downregulator of immune responses. Mutations in CTLA-4 are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), celiac disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroid-associated orbitopathy, multiple sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases. The spliced variant of CTLA-4 in SLE is present in the patient’s serum. Haploinsufficiency of CTLA-4 causes the immune system disorder known as CTLA-4 deficiency or CHAI disease (CTLA-4 haploinsufficiency with autoimmune infiltration).