DOG1, also known as Discovered on GIST-1, is a marker that highly specific for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Anti-DOG1 is extremely sensitive for the detection of GIST and its diagnosis. Although some GIST stain weakly for c-kit, DOG1 is expressed in the vast majority of GIST cases. Reports have also indicated DOG1 as a marker for salivary acinar and intercalated duct differentiation.
Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a membrane protein that plays a role in innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the biosynthesis of inflammation, prostaglandins, and leukotriene mediators. This target is overexpressed in 97% of all samples from patients with with hairy cell leukemia, and is absent in other B-cell lymphomas. High ANXA1 expression is frequently associated with advanced stage esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, and is also linked to advanced and metastatic disease states.
Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is a soluble, cytosolic enzyme involved in the TCA metabolic cycle. The most notable mutation in this enzyme, R132H, is clinically indicated in the majority of astrocytomas and oligodendroglial tumours, with the mutation being associated with more favourable prognosis and increased survival in those patients. IDH1 R132H is also useful in the differential diagnosis between anaplastic glioma and glioblastoma.
The Her2/Neu (c-erbB-2) proto-oncogene is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is clinically indicated in a number of carcinomas. Overexpression of the c-erbB-2 protein has been associated with ductal breast cancer, as well as pulmonary and gastric adenocarcinomas. A correlation between Her2 and p53 has also been documented, as overexpression of both proteins has been associated with early invasion and metastasis in bladder cancer.
Arginase-1, encoded by the ARG1 gene, is a cytosolic metalloenzyme expressed predominantly in hepatocytes which plays a key role in the urea cycle by catalyzing the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. Argininemia is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a buildup of arginine and ammonia in the blood. Anti-Arginase-1 is highly specific for hepatocytes, and is therefore a sensitive and specific marker of benign and malignant hepatic tumors.
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