DOG1, also known as Discovered on GIST-1, is a marker that highly specific for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Anti-DOG1 is extremely sensitive for the detection of GIST and its diagnosis. Although some GIST stain weakly for c-kit, DOG1 is expressed in the vast majority of GIST cases. Reports have also indicated DOG1 as a marker for salivary acinar and intercalated duct differentiation.
The Her2/Neu (c-erbB-2) proto-oncogene is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is clinically indicated in a number of carcinomas. Overexpression of the c-erbB-2 protein has been associated with ductal breast cancer, as well as pulmonary and gastric adenocarcinomas. A correlation between Her2 and p53 has also been documented, as overexpression of both proteins has been associated with early invasion and metastasis in bladder cancer.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) allows for progression of ovarian folliculogenesis, and enables Sertoli cell proliferation in the testis. Anti-FSH reacts with FSH-producing cells, therefore FSH staining is useful for classifying pituitary cancers and understanding pituitary disease.
E-cadherin is an intercellular adhesion molecule present in epithelial cells. Anti-E-cadherin stains glandular epithelium, as well as lung, gastrointestinal and ovarian adenocarcinomas. A panel of antibodies against E-cadherin and p120 is also used to differentiate ductal (membranous staining) and lobular breast cancer (cytoplasmic staining). Anti-E-cadherin also stains some thyroid cancers.
Arginase-1, encoded by the ARG1 gene, is a cytosolic metalloenzyme expressed predominantly in hepatocytes which plays a key role in the urea cycle by catalyzing the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. Argininemia is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a buildup of arginine and ammonia in the blood. Anti-Arginase-1 is highly specific for hepatocytes, and is therefore a sensitive and specific marker of benign and malignant hepatic tumors.
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