DOG1, also known as Discovered on GIST-1, is a marker that highly specific for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Anti-DOG1 is extremely sensitive for the detection of GIST and its diagnosis. Although some GIST stain weakly for c-kit, DOG1 is expressed in the vast majority of GIST cases. Reports have also indicated DOG1 as a marker for salivary acinar and intercalated duct differentiation.
Arginase-1, encoded by the ARG1 gene, is a cytosolic metalloenzyme expressed predominantly in hepatocytes which plays a key role in the urea cycle by catalyzing the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. Argininemia is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a buildup of arginine and ammonia in the blood. Anti-Arginase-1 is highly specific for hepatocytes, and is therefore a sensitive and specific marker of benign and malignant hepatic tumors.
CDX-2 is a caudal-related homeobox transcription factor that is expressed by intestinal epithelial cells. CDX-2 is a useful marker for gastrointestinal carcinoma, and for determining the origin of gastrointestinal metastatic adenocarcinoma and carcinoids. Anti-CDX-2 is used for differentiating lung and metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma, however mucinous ovarian carcinoma also react positively with Anti-CDX-2, thereby limiting the ability to differentiate from metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma.
E-cadherin is an intercellular adhesion molecule present in epithelial cells. Anti-E-cadherin stains glandular epithelium, as well as lung, gastrointestinal and ovarian adenocarcinomas. A panel of antibodies against E-cadherin and p120 is also used to differentiate ductal (membranous staining) and lobular breast cancer (cytoplasmic staining). Anti-E-cadherin also stains some thyroid cancers.
Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a membrane protein that plays a role in innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the biosynthesis of inflammation, prostaglandins, and leukotriene mediators. This target is overexpressed in 97% of all samples from patients with with hairy cell leukemia, and is absent in other B-cell lymphomas. High ANXA1 expression is frequently associated with advanced stage esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, and is also linked to advanced and metastatic disease states.
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