DOG1, also known as Discovered on GIST-1, is a marker that highly specific for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Anti-DOG1 is extremely sensitive for the detection of GIST and its diagnosis. Although some GIST stain weakly for c-kit, DOG1 is expressed in the vast majority of GIST cases. Reports have also indicated DOG1 as a marker for salivary acinar and intercalated duct differentiation.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) allows for progression of ovarian folliculogenesis, and enables Sertoli cell proliferation in the testis. Anti-FSH reacts with FSH-producing cells, therefore FSH staining is useful for classifying pituitary cancers and understanding pituitary disease.
LMO2, also known as LIM-Only transcription factor 2, RBTN2, or TTG2, is an oncoprotein that is expressed in normal germinal center B-cells, as well as bone marrow hematopoietic precursors and endothelial cells. LMO2 plays a role in angiogenesis and hematopoesis, and its expression has been detected in erythroid and myeloid precursors, megakaryocytes, and also in lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemias. LMO2 protein expression has been noted in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most common adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as follicular lymphoma, a neoplasm derived from germinal center B-cells that accounts for a number of cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
E-cadherin is an intercellular adhesion molecule present in epithelial cells. Anti-E-cadherin stains glandular epithelium, as well as lung, gastrointestinal and ovarian adenocarcinomas. A panel of antibodies against E-cadherin and p120 is also used to differentiate ductal (membranous staining) and lobular breast cancer (cytoplasmic staining). Anti-E-cadherin also stains some thyroid cancers.
Cluster of differentiation 5 (CD5) is expressed in high levels on the surface of T cells, while controversy surrounds the expression levels and role of CD5 in B cells. As a part of a diagnostic panel, its utility lies predominantly as a marker for T cells, with over 70% of T cell neoplasms expressing CD5. In particular, it is correlated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas, mantle cell lymphoma, as well as a subset of diffuse large B cell lymphomas. CD5 demonstrates positive expression in thymic carcinomas, and is not as sensitive as CD3. CD5 also has value as a prognostic indicator, being associated with poor prognosis in acute T cell lymphoblastic leukemia.
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