Anti-p40 recognizes squamous and basal cells, the shortest variant of p53, and ΔNp63 (an isoform of p63). p40 has been indicated as an alternative to p63 for the detection of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SqCC), offering the advantage of eliminating potential misinterpretation of a positive adenocarcinoma as a SqCC.
Arginase-1, encoded by the ARG1 gene, is a cytosolic metalloenzyme expressed predominantly in hepatocytes which plays a key role in the urea cycle by catalyzing the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. Argininemia is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a buildup of arginine and ammonia in the blood. Anti-Arginase-1 is highly specific for hepatocytes, and is therefore a sensitive and specific marker of benign and malignant hepatic tumors.
Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) is a glycoprotein receptor for hyaluronic acid, which plays a fundamental role in cellular adhesion, stromal binding, migration, and cell-cell interactions. Studies have suggested that the CD44-hyaluronate interaction is central to tumor invasiveness. Positive staining with Anti-CD44 is implicated in a multitude of different cancer types, including breast, prostatic, renal cell, colonic, hepatocellular, and genitourinary carcinomas, as well as Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, metastatic melanoma, gastric cancer, and some soft tissue tumors. It has also been demonstrated that there is a positive correlation between tumor progression and increased expression of CD44v, a high molecular weight CD44 isoform that has been described in epithelial cells. Given the expression of CD44 in a wide range of cancers, the most practical application of CD44 immunostaining is its use in discriminating between urothelial transitional cell carcinoma in situ from non-neoplastic changes in the urothelium.
Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) forms intermediate filaments found in the intracytoplasmic cytoskeleton of epithelial tissue and provides mechanical support. Anti-Cytokeratin 19 stains epithelia and epithelial malignancies such as carcinomas of the colon, stomach, pancreas, biliary tract, liver, and breast. Cytokeratin 19 is a useful marker for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma from intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. This differentiation is improved when stained in combination with Cytokeratin 7, CAM5.2l, Ber-EP4/MOC31, HepPar1 and TTF1. Cytokeratin 19 staining can also be used to recognize thyroid papillary carcinomas.
Cluster of differentiation 57 (CD57), also known as NK-1, is an antigen detectable in natural killer cells, some T-lymphocytes and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, myeloid cells, and a variety of polypeptides, lipids, and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. CD57 is indicated as a marker for tumors of neuroendocrine origin, including pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, carcinoid tumor, and medulloblastomas, as well as various neural tumors including neuromas, neurofibromas, schwannomas, and granular cell tumors. CD57 is also detectable in ganglioneuroma and prostate carcinoma. Anti-CD57 is used to distinguish nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma from T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma, nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s disease, and follicular lymphoma.
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