Anti-p40 recognizes squamous and basal cells, the shortest variant of p53, and ΔNp63 (an isoform of p63). p40 has been indicated as an alternative to p63 for the detection of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SqCC), offering the advantage of eliminating potential misinterpretation of a positive adenocarcinoma as a SqCC.
LMO2, also known as LIM-Only transcription factor 2, RBTN2, or TTG2, is an oncoprotein that is expressed in normal germinal center B-cells, as well as bone marrow hematopoietic precursors and endothelial cells. LMO2 plays a role in angiogenesis and hematopoesis, and its expression has been detected in erythroid and myeloid precursors, megakaryocytes, and also in lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemias. LMO2 protein expression has been noted in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the most common adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as follicular lymphoma, a neoplasm derived from germinal center B-cells that accounts for a number of cases of non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Cluster of differentiation 5 (CD5) is expressed in high levels on the surface of T cells, while controversy surrounds the expression levels and role of CD5 in B cells. As a part of a diagnostic panel, its utility lies predominantly as a marker for T cells, with over 70% of T cell neoplasms expressing CD5. In particular, it is correlated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas, mantle cell lymphoma, as well as a subset of diffuse large B cell lymphomas. CD5 demonstrates positive expression in thymic carcinomas, and is not as sensitive as CD3. CD5 also has value as a prognostic indicator, being associated with poor prognosis in acute T cell lymphoblastic leukemia.
Ki-67 is a nuclear, non-histone protein that is expressed only during active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2 and M), but not in the resting phases (G0 and G1 early phase). Although the antigen has also been associated with ribosomal RNA transcription, it is strongly linked to cell proliferation and has thus been indicated as an effective marker in grading the proliferation rate of tumors, including those of the brain, breast, cervix, and prostate.
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