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Cluster of Differentiation 71 (CD71), also known as Transferrin Receptor Protein 1 (TfR1) or the transferrin receptor, is a cell surface proliferation marker that is involved in the cellular uptake of iron. CD71 is most highly expressed in early erythroid precursors and is fully absent from mature erythrocytes; CD71 is therefore highly useful as a marker for erythroid components within bone marrow biopsy specimens, without interference from mature erythrocytes. CD71 expression has been indicated in invasive breast carcinoma with acquired resistance to tamoxifen, and has been linked to poor prognosis in ER+/luminal-like breast cancer. Anti-CD71 is used in the determination of erythroid leukemia, benign erythroid proliferative disorders, and myelodysplastic syndrome.
Cluster of Differentiation 73 (CD73), also known as Ecto-5′-Nucleotidase (ecto-5′-NT), is a cell surface enzyme found in most tissues. CD73 catalyzes the breakdown of AMP to adenosine, thereby modulating inflammatory and T-cell responses. Reports have implicated CD73 expression in tumour progression and carcinogenesis, as CD73 is a key regulatory molecule in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of cancer cells in vitro, as well as tumour angiogenesis and tumour immune escape in vivo. Due to this key involvement in cancer, CD73 has become an appealing target for cancer immunotherapy. CD73 expression has also been linked to favourable prognosis in breast carcinoma.
Desmoglein-3 Antibody (DSG3) is a component of desmosomes in vertebrate epithelial cells. It identifies pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas from other types of lung cancer with high specificity and sensitivity. Studies show the upregulation of DSG3 correlated with metastasis in a number of cancers including lung cancers. The expression of DSG3 indicates a poor prognosis and portends a more aggressive clinical outcome.
Cluster of Differentiation 99 (CD99) is a glycosylated transmembrane protein expressed by lymphocytes, cortical thymocytes, granulosa cells of the ovary, pancreatic islet cells, Sertoli cells, and endothelial cells. CD99 produces diffuse membrane staining patterns on nearly all Ewing’s sarcoma and primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumours. CD99 may be found in synovial sarcoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, acute myeloid leukemia, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, small round blue cell tumours, solitary fibrous tumours, vascular tumours, and myeloid sarcoma. It produces heterogeneous staining patterns which must be accompanied by other antibody staining for a final diagnosis.
LAG3 (Lymphocyte-activation gene 3) was discovered in 1990 and was previously designated as CD223. LAG3 is a cell surface molecule expressed by activated T cells, natural killer cells, B cells and plasmacytoiddendritic cells. It binds to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and serves as an immune checkpoint receptor. LAG3 negatively regulates cellular proliferation, activation and homeostasisof T cells, and plays a role in Treg suppressive function. LAG3 also helps maintain CD8+ T cells in atolerogenic state and, working with PD-1, helps maintain CD8 exhaustion during chronic viral infection. LAG3 expression was detected in tumour infiltrating lymphocytes. IHC revealed LAG3 expression was distributed on lymphocytes scattered in renal cell carcinoma, melanoma and lymphomas. They were also detected in the tumour stroma as well as in the peritumoral tissue. LAG3 is the target of various drug development programs for cancer and autoimmune disorders. In soluble form, it is also being developed as a cancer drug in its own right.
B7H4 is a glycosylated transmembrane protein of the B7 family. It binds to activated T cells to moderate the T cell responses via cell cycle arrest in the T cell. Reverse signaling can induce either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in the B7H4 expressing cell. B7H4 is up-regulated in several carcinomas in correlation with tumor progression and metastasis. A soluble form of B7H4 is elevated in the serum of ovarian cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and rheumatoid arthritis patients, also in correlation with advanced disease status.
Cluster of Differentiation 30 (CD30) is a transmembrane cytokine receptor expressed by activated T- and B- cells. It is present on Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin’s lymphoma, most anaplastic large cell lymphomas, embryonal carcinomas, and primary cutaneous CD30 positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. B-cell lymphomas are sometimes stained by Anti-CD30. Lymphomas exhibit Golgi zone accentuation when stained with Anti-CD30, while embryonal carcinomas produce membranous stains.
OX40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, which regulates T cell activity and immune response. OX40 is mainly activated by CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. It is expressed on cells, while OX40 ligands (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) are mainly expressed on activated antigen-presenting cells. Research shows that the OX40 pathway is related to inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Other studies have shown that OX40 agonists can enhance the anti-tumour immunity of several cancer types.