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Cluster of Differentiation 31 (CD31) is present on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and its expression is used to determine the concentration of HSCs in research studies and for bone marrow transplantation. Anti-CD31 is very specific and sensitive for endothelial cells and does not stain non-vascular tumours, therefore CD31 staining is used to recognize the vascular origins of neoplasms.
Cluster of Differentiation 34 (CD34) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, vascular endothelium, embryonic fibroblasts, and rare glial cells in nervous tissue. CD34 is the most used marker for characterizing blasts in leukemia. CD34 is also present in some soft tissue tumours including solitary fibrous tumours and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Proliferating endothelial cells seem to upregulate CD34 expression. Although specificity is low, Anti-CD34 reacts positively with more than 85% of angiosarcoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma.
ROS1 serves as a receptor tyrosine kinase. Gene rearrangement events involving ROS1 have been described in lung and other cancers, and such tumours have been found to be remarkably responsive to small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Multiple studies have observed ROS1 gene rearragement events in approximately 1% of lung cancers and showed that inhibition of tumour cells bearing ROS1 gene fusions by crizotinib or other ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors was effective in vitro.
Cluster of Differentiation 56 (CD56), also known as Neural-Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM), is a glycoprotein involved in synaptic plasticity, cell-cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth, learning, and memory. NCAM is expressed in normal neurons, glia, natural killer cells, activated T-cells, brain and cerebellum, neuroendocrine tissues, and skeletal muscle. Anti-CD56 recognizes a number of tumours including myeloma, myeloid leukemia, natural killer/T-cell lymphomas, neuroendocrine tumours, pancreatic acinar-cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and Wilm’s tumour. CD56 is detectable in neoplasms that are neuroectodermally-derived, such as retinoblastoma, medulloblastomas, astrocytomas, small cell carcinomas, and neuroblastomas. It has also been linked to rhabdomyosarcoma, a tumour that is mesodermally-derived.
p57Kip2, also known as p57, is a tumour suppressor protein that causes cell cycle arrest at G1 by binding to G1 cyclin-CDK complexes. The p57Kip2 gene is a potential tumour suppressor target as the gene is located in a chromosomal region implicated in sporadic cancers, Wilms’ tumour, and Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome. Anti-p57Kip2 labels many cytotrophoblast nuclei and stromal cells in normal placenta, and is useful in differentiating between complete hydatidiform mole and partial hydatidiform mole or hydropic abortion.
Anti-p40 recognizes squamous and basal cells, the shortest variant of p53, and ΔNp63 (an isoform of p63). p40 has been indicated as an alternative to p63 for the detection of Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SqCC), offering the advantage of eliminating potential misinterpretation of a positive adenocarcinoma as a SqCC.
Cluster of Differentiation 61 (CD61), also known as Glycoprotein IIIa or GPIIIa, is an antigen expressed on megakaryocytes, platelets, myeloid cells, monocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. It is involved in platelet aggregation and acts as a receptor for fibrinogen, fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and vitronectin. Anti-CD61 is used for identifying megakaryocytopoiesis, as seen in megakaryoblastic leukemias, myelodysplastic disorders, and acute myeloid leukemias. CD61 is also indicated as a marker for platelet adhesion in advanced atherosclerosis and has been reported in the identification of fat embolism in pulmonary tissue.
Cluster of Differentiation 68 (CD68) is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane antigen that is detected in lysosomes, tissue macrophages, Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, Kupffer cells, osteoclasts, and granulocytes. Anti-CD68 may be useful in identifying myelomonocytic and histiocytic tumours, and for differentiating between malignant fibrous histiocytoma and other pleomorphic sarcomas. However, other lysosome-rich cells may also stain, since Anti-CD68 detects a formalin-resistant epitope that may be associated with lysosomal granules.