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Cluster of Differentiation 163 (CD163) is a receptor found exclusively on the surface of monocytes and macrophages. The solubilized form in plasma is upregulated in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and Gaucher’s disease, which supports recent studies that have found IL-10, glucocorticoids, and other inflammatory modulators to upregulate CD163 expression. CD163 staining is useful for differentiating synovial intimal fibroblasts from synovial macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. Overexpression of CD163 is also present in patients with myelomonocytic leukemia dealing with microbial infections. CD163 expression is found in leukemias with monocytic differentiation and synovial-type giant cell tumours of the vertebral column.
Ki-67 is a nuclear, non-histone protein that is expressed only during active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2 and M), but not in the resting phases (G0 and G1 early phase). Although the antigen has also been associated with ribosomal RNA transcription, it is strongly linked to cell proliferation and has thus been indicated as an effective marker in grading the proliferation rate of tumours, including those of the brain, breast, cervix, and prostate.
Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) contains the large (L), middle (M), and small (S) surface proteins of the Hepatitis-B-Virus (HBV). It is the surface antigen of HBV, indicating current Hepatitis B infection. The body produces antibodies to HBsAg as part of the normal immune response to infection. Immunohistochemical staining for HBsAg in liver tissue is useful for the detection of HBV.
CA 19-9 is a secreted protein that is implicated in various cancers. It is overexpressed in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas and gastric, pancreatic, and colonic (gastrointestinal) adenocarcinomas, but is not expressed in breast, kidney, and prostate carcinomas. CA 19-9 staining is also implicated in Mirizzi’s Syndrome or other bile duct and liver diseases.
This antibody is intended for in vitro diagnostic (IVD) use.
The p16INK4A [IHC216] antibody is intended for qualified laboratories to qualitatively identify by light microscopy, the presence of associated antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections using immunohistochemistry test methods. Use of this antibody is indicated, subsequent to clinical differential diagnoses of diseases, as an aid in the identification of neoplastic tissue within the context of antibody panels, the patient’s clinical history and other diagnostic tests as evaluated by a qualified pathologist.
TIGIT is an immune receptor present on some T cells and Natural Killer cells. TIGIT binds with high affinity to the poliovirus receptor (PVR) which causes increased secretion of IL10 and decreased secretion of IL12B and suppresses T cell activation by promoting the generation of mature immunoregulatory dendritic cells. Through the CD226/TIGIT-PVR pathway, TIGIT regulates T cell mediated immunity. In cancer, TIGIT and PD-1 have been shown to be over-expressed on tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from individuals with melanoma. Blockade of TIGIT and PD-1 led to increased cell proliferation, cytokine production, and degranulation of tumour antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and TIL CD8+ T cells. It can be considered an immune checkpoint.