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Vimentin is a component of intermediate filament in mesenchymal cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and melanocytes. Anti-Vimentin is useful for assessing whether tissue samples have been processed and preserved properly. A panel of Anti-Vimentin and Anti-Keratin is useful for differentiating melanomas from large cell lymphomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. This diagnostic grade Vimentin IVD antibody stains melanomas and schwannomas, as well as Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas.
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a receptor on T helper cells that functions as an immune checkpoint and downregulator of immune responses. Mutations in CTLA-4 are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), celiac disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, thyroid-associated orbitopathy, multiple sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases. The spliced variant of CTLA-4 in SLE is present in the patient’s serum. Haploinsufficiency of CTLA-4 causes the immune system disorder known as CTLA-4 deficiency or CHAI disease (CTLA-4 haploinsufficiency with autoimmune infiltration).
Cytokeratin 7 (CK7) is a type II keratin which is present in transitional, ductal, glandular, and biliary duct epithelial cells. Cytokeratin 7 is a useful marker for distinguishing between carcinomas of the lung, breast, endometrium, and urothelia (positive stain) from carcinomas of the colon and prostate (negative stain). Cytokeratin 7 is present in nearly all primary lung adenocarcinomas, and is a useful marker in the differential diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms. Anti-Cytokeratin 7 does not stain intermediate filament.
Cluster of Differentiation 13 (CD13) is a transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in both hematological and solid malignancies, including Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Although hypogranular variants of AML are difficult to distinguish from other AML subtypes due to the morphology, the diagnosis of this variant is possible through using a panel of CD13, CD16, CD33, CD34, and CD117. Alternatively, a panel of CD13, CD34, CD43, CD68, CD117, CD163, lysozyme, and MPO is very useful for accurately diagnosing myeloid sarcoma and distinguishing it from large cell lymphoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma, malignant melanoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, extra-medullary hematopoiesis, and inflammation. Since CD13 is expressed in both normal and neoplastic liver tissues, CD13 staining is useful for distinguishing between hepatocellular carcinoma and non-hepatocellular neoplasms.
The HER2/neu (c-erbB-2) proto-oncogene is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is clinically indicated in a number of carcinomas. Overexpression of the c-erbB-2 protein has been associated with ductal breast cancer, as well as pulmonary and gastric adenocarcinomas. A correlation between HER2 and p53 has also been documented, as overexpression of both proteins has been associated with early invasion and metastasis in bladder cancer.
The p16 (p16INK4A) protein is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that plays an important regulatory role in the cell cycle. By controlling the transition between the G1 and S phases through regulation of retinoblastoma protein, p16 decelerates cellular differentiation and therefore acts as a tumor suppressor, making it the key marker in several human cancers including head and neck cancer, perianal lesions, melanomas, gliomas, lymphomas, and some types of leukemia. p16 is also clinically indicated in carcinomas of the esophagus, pancreas, lung, biliary tract, liver, colon, and urinary bladder.
Cluster of Differentiation 23 (CD23) is found on interleukin-4 activated B-cells, activated macrophages, eosinophils, and follicular dendritic cells, and is a receptor for IgE, an antibody involved in parasitic immunity. CD23 is present on Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin’s disease. Follicular dendritic cells and activated B-lymphocytes produce strong staining in germinal centers and weak patterns in mantle zone B-cells. CD23 is helpful in differentiating chronic lymphocytic leukemia from mantle cell leukemia. Small B-cell lymphomas are sometimes positive, while precursor B- and T-lymphomas, myeloid neoplasms, and mature T-cell lymphomas stain negatively with Anti-CD23.
p27, also known as p27Kip1, is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that binds to and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases, thereby regulating progression from G1 to S phase. Decreased expression of p27 is linked to poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma, colon carcinoma, small breast carcinomas, non-small cell lung carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, multiple myeloma, lymph node metastases in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, and is associated with a more aggressive phenotype of carcinoma in the cervix.